The Seven Stones

Transcription paused and poised for regulation

Research highlight by Frank C.P. Holstege, Department of Physiological Chemistry, University Medical Center Utrecht, the Netherlands.

MSB Research HighlightsFor eukaryotes, it is widely thought that transcription is primarily regulated through recruitment of the essential machinery to transcription start-sites. Previous hints challenging this paradigm have been confirmed by recent analyses showing that transcription regulation of a large number of genes actually occurs after recruitment. Mechanistically, such studies have gone furthest in Drosophila melanogaster (Muse et al, 2007; Zeitlinger et al, 2007). Here, conservative estimates indicate that more than 10% of genes are regulated through promoter-proximal pausing. On such genes, RNA polymerase II is recruited and initiates transcription, but then pauses around 50 bp downstream of the transcription start-site where it awaits further signals to resume elongation and complete transcription proper. These observations tie in with other observations made in yeast (Radonjic et al, 2005), embryonic stem cells (Bernstein et al, 2006; Lee et al, 2006) and differentiated mammalian cells (Guenther et al, 2007). There are numerous implications to these findings. For example, the widely assumed link between the presence of gene-specific transcription activators and full-length transcription appears to be much looser than expected. These results also underscore the importance of testing established models on a genome-wide scale. Indeed, other such surveys (Birney et al, 2007), indicate that to understand transcription, we may need to take into account even more surprises – such as the presence of ten times more start-sites than protein-coding genes and overlapping transcription units, etc… – than the post-recruitment mechanisms demonstrated in Drosophila.

Bernstein BE, Mikkelsen TS, Xie X, Kamal M, Huebert DJ, Cuff J, Fry B, Meissner A, Wernig M, Plath K, et al. (2006) A bivalent chromatin structure marks key developmental genes in embryonic stem cells. Cell 125: 315-326

Birney E, Stamatoyannopoulos JA, Dutta A, Guigo R, Gingeras TR, Margulies EH, Weng Z, Snyder M, Dermitzakis ET, Thurman RE, et al. (2007) Identification and analysis of functional elements in 1% of the human genome by the ENCODE pilot project. Nature 447: 799-816

Guenther MG, Levine SS, Boyer LA, Jaenisch R, and Young RA (2007) A chromatin landmark and transcription initiation at most promoters in human cells. Cell 130: 77-88

Lee TI, Jenner RG, Boyer LA, Guenther MG, Levine SS, Kumar RM, Chevalier B, Johnstone SE, Cole MF, Isono K, et al. (2006) Control of developmental regulators by Polycomb in human embryonic stem cells. Cell 125: 301-313

Muse GW, Gilchrist DA, Nechaev S, Shah R, Parker JS, Grissom SF, Zeitlinger J, and Adelman K (2007) RNA polymerase is poised for activation across the genome. Nat Genet 39: 1507-1511

Radonjic M, Andrau JC, Lijnzaad P, Kemmeren P, Kockelkorn TT, van Leenen D, van Berkum NL, and Holstege FC (2005) Genome-wide analyses reveal RNA polymerase II located upstream of genes poised for rapid response upon S. cerevisiae stationary phase exit. Mol Cell 18: 171-183

Zeitlinger J, Stark A, Kellis M, Hong JW, Nechaev S, Adelman K, Levine M, and Young RA (2007) RNA polymerase stalling at developmental control genes in the Drosophila melanogaster embryo. Nat Genet 39: 1512-1516


Comments are closed.